מערכת המחשבים

Computer System
Definition: It is a collection of entities (hardware, software and Liveware tools) designed to receive, process, manage and present information in a meaningful format.

Components of the computer system

• Computer hardware – are physical / intangible parts of a computer. For example, input devices, output devices, central processing unit and storage devices
• Computer software – also known as software or applications. They are classified into two classes namely – system software and application software
• Liveware – is the computer user. Also, like organic or human software. The user orders the computer system to follow the instructions.

Computer hardware

Hardware refers to the physical and tangible computer equipment and equipment that provide support for key functions such as input, processing (internal storage, computation and control), output, secondary storage (for data and programs), and communication.

Hardware Categories (Functional Parts)

A computer system is a set of integrated devices that record, output, process and store data and information. Computer systems are currently built around at least one digital processing device. There are five major hardware components in a computer system: input, processing, storage, output and communication devices. 

Input devices  are devices used to enter data or instructions to the central processing unit. Divided by the method they use to enter data.
Key devices

Are devices used to enter data into a computer using a keyboard, such as a keyboard, keyboard storage, and keyboard.

i) The keyboard A
keyboard (similar to a typewriter) is the main input device of a computer. It contains three types of keys – alphanumeric, special, and function keys. Alphanumeric keys are used to type all the special alphabets, numbers, and symbols such as $,%, @, A, etc. Special keys such as <Shift>, <Ctrl>, <Alt>, <Home>, <Scroll Lock>, etc. are used for special functions. Function keys such as <Fl>, <F2>, <F3>, etc. are used to issue special commands according to the software used for example eF.F5 reloads a page in the web browser. The function of each key and key can only be well understood after working on a computer. When any key is pressed, an electronic signal is generated. This signal is detected by a keyboard encoder that sends a binary code corresponding to the key pressed to the processor. There are many types of keyboards but 101 keyboards are the most popular.

How the keys are arranged

The keyboard keys can be divided into several groups based on function:

• Keyboard typing (alphanumeric). These keys include the same letters, numbers, punctuation, and symbol found in the traditional typewriter.
• Special keys (control). These keys are used alone or in combination with other keys to perform certain operations. The most common control keys are CTRL, ALT, Windows key and ESC.
• Function keys. The function keys are used to perform specific tasks. They are marked as F1, F2, F3 and so on, up to F12. The functionality of these keys differs from program to program.
• cursor movement keys (navigation). These keys are used to move documents or web pages and edit text. They include the arrow keys, home key, end, page up, page down, delete, and arrow keys.
• Numeric keypad. The numeric keypad is useful for entering numbers quickly. The keys are grouped together in a block like a conventional calculator or machine insert.

Pointing devices

They are devices that enter data and instructions into the computer with an on-screen pointer. The items to enter are selected by pointing or clicking. Mice, joystick, touch sensitive screen, strap balls


i) The mouse
mouse is a small device used to reference and select items on the computer screen. Although mice come in many forms, the typical mouse does look like an actual mouse. It is small, rectangular and connected to the system unit using a long wire similar to the tail and the connector that can be PS / 2 or USB. Some newer mice are wireless.

The mouse usually has two buttons: a main button (usually the left button) and a secondary button. Many mice also have a wheel between the two buttons, which allows you to scroll smoothly through information screens.

When you move your mouse with your hand, your screen is pointing in the same direction. (The pointer’s appearance may change depending on where it is on the screen.) When you want to select an item, you point to the item and then click (click and release) the main button. Pointing and clicking with the mouse is the main way to interact with your computer. There are several types of mice: mechanical mouse, optical mouse, optical-mechanical mouse and laser mouse.

Basic parts

The mouse usually has two buttons: a main button (usually the left button) and a secondary button (usually the right button). The main button is o ne you will use most often. Most mice include a scroll wheel between the buttons to help you scroll documents and web pages more easily. In some mice, you can click the scroll wheel to act as a third button. Advanced mice may have additional buttons that can perform other functions.

Grabbing and moving the mouse

מקם את העכבר לצד המקלדת על משטח נקי וחלק, כמו משטח עכבר. החזק את העכבר בעדינות כשאצבע המורה מונחת על הכפתור הראשי ואגודלך מונח בצד. כדי להזיז את העכבר, החלק אותו לאט לכל כיוון. אל תפתל אותו – הרחק את קדמת העכבר מכוון ממך. כשאתה מזיז את העכבר, מצביע (ראה תמונה) על המסך שלך נע לאותו כיוון. אם נגמר לך החדר להזיז את העכבר בשולחן העבודה שלך או על משטח העכבר, פשוט הרם את העכבר והחזיר אותו קרוב יותר אליך.

הצבעה על אובייקט מגלה לעיתים קרובות הודעה תיאורית לגביו. המצביע יכול להשתנות תלוי במה אתה מצביע. לדוגמה, כאשר אתה מצביע על קישור בדפדפן האינטרנט שלך, המצביע משתנה מחץ ליד עם אצבע מכוונת.

רוב פעולות העכבר משלבות הצבעה עם לחיצה על אחד מכפתורי העכבר. ישנן ארבע דרכים בסיסיות להשתמש בכפתורי העכבר: לחיצה, לחיצה כפולה, לחיצה ימנית וגרירה.

לחיצה (לחיצה אחת)

כדי ללחוץ על פריט, הצבע על הפריט שעל המסך ולחץ ושחרר את הכפתור הראשי (בדרך כלל הכפתור השמאלי).

Clicking is most often used to select (mark) an item or open a menu. This is sometimes called a single click or a left click.

Double click

To double-click an item, point to the item on the screen, and then double-click. If the two clicks are spaced apart, they may be interpreted as two single clicks rather than one double click.

Double-clicking is most often used to open desktop items. For example, you can run a program or open a folder by double-clicking its icon on the desktop.

Right click

To right-click an item, point to the item on the screen and press and release the secondary button (usually the right button).

Right-clicking on an item usually displays a list of things you can do with the item. For example, when you right-click the Recycle Bin on your desktop, Windows displays a menu that lets you open it, empty it, delete it, or see its properties. If you’re not sure what to do with something, right-click it.

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